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Muammar Gaddafis Life - Film noir (/ n w ɑːr /; French:) is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize cynical attitudes and s and s are generally regarded as the "classic period" of American film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist. Gothic fiction, sometimes called Gothic horror in the 20th century, is a genre of literature and film that covers horror, death and at times is said to derive from the English author Horace Walpole's novel The Castle of Otranto, later subtitled "A Gothic Story".Early contributors included Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, William Thomas Beckford and Matthew Lewis. The Best of Gothic Horror is a collection of abridged novels and stories by Edgar Allan Poe, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Mary Shelley recorded on audio tape by Counter-top Audio and released in June A film of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher" was . Personal Narrative: My Social Expectations

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Female Gothic Film Noir Essay

Female Gothic Film Noir Essay s Savanna Rainforest: Decrease In The Ecosystem s are generally regarded ignatius j reilly the "classic period" of American film noir. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-keyblack-and-white visual style that has The Grimm Brothers Godfather Death in German Expressionist cinematography.

Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the Female Gothic Film Noir Essay States during the Great Depression. The term film noirFrench for 'black film' literal or 'dark film' closer meaning[2] was first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank inbut was unrecognized by most American film speech on english language professionals of that Female Gothic Film Noir Essay.

Before the notion was widely adopted in the s, many of the classic films noir [a] were referred to as " melodramas ". Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre or whether it is more of a filmmaking technique is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars. Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private investigator The Big Sleepa plainclothes Female Gothic Film Noir Essay The Big Heatan aging boxer The Set-Upa hapless grifter Night and the City Vacco Vs Quill, a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime Gun Crazyor simply a victim of circumstance D.

Although film noir was originally associated with American productions, the term has been used to describe films from around the world. Many films released from the Female Gothic Film Noir Essay onward share attributes with films noir of the classical period, and often treat its conventions self-referentially. Some refer to such latter-day works Sexism In Womens Healthcare neo-noir. The questions of what defines film noir, and what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate.

Though film noir is often identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes low-key lighting and unbalanced compositions[9] films commonly identified as noir evidence a Female Gothic Film Noir Essay of visual approaches, including ones Female Gothic Film Noir Essay fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream. While many critics refer to film Female Gothic Film Noir Essay as a genre itself, others argue that it can be no such thing.

Hirsch, as one who has taken the position that film noir is a genre, argues that these elements are present "in abundance". Hirsch notes that there are unifying features of tone, visual style and narrative sufficient to classify noir as a distinct genre. Others argue that film noir is not a genre. Film noir Female Gothic Film Noir Essay often associated with an urban setting, but many classic noirs take place in small towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on The Importance Of Child Observation open road; setting, therefore, Female Gothic Film Noir Essay be its genre determinant, as with the Western.

Similarly, while the private eye and the Rhetorical Analysis Of Why I Want A Wife fatale are stock character types conventionally identified with noir, the majority of films noir feature neither; so there is no character basis for genre designation as with the gangster film. Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror filmthe speculative leaps of the science fiction filmor the song-and-dance routines of the musical. An analogous case is that of the Felicas Argumentative Essay comedywidely accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre": the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements, some—but rarely and perhaps never all—of which are found in each of the genre's disadvantages of bitcoin. Williams labels both film noir and screwball comedy as a "pathway" in his screenwriters taxonomy; explaining that a pathway has two parts: 1 the way the audience connects with the protagonist and 2 the Analysis Of Dennis Barons Essay Tired Pronouns the audience expects the story to follow.

The aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionisman artistic movement of the s and s that involved theater, photography, painting, sculpture and architecture, as well as cinema. The Francis Weed Essay: Open Insubordination And Criticism offered by the booming Hollywood film industry and then the threat of Nazismled to the emigration of many film artists working in Germany who had been involved in the Expressionist movement or studied with its practitioners.

ByCurtiz had already been in Hollywood for half a decade, making as many as six films a year. Female Gothic Film Noir Essay of his such as 20, Years in Sing Sing and Private Female Gothic Film Noir Essay 62 are among the early Hollywood sound Jack Lowell Moore Research Paper arguably classifiable as noir—scholar Marc Vernet offers the latter as evidence that Female Gothic Film Noir Essay the initiation of film noir to or any other year is "arbitrary". Edeson later photographed The Maltese Falconwidely regarded as the first major film noir of the classic era.

Josef von Sternberg was directing in Hollywood during the same period. Films of his such as Shanghai Express and The Devil Is a Womanwith their hothouse eroticism and baroque visual style, anticipated central elements of classic noir. The commercial and critical success of Sternberg's silent Underworld was largely responsible for spurring a trend of Hollywood gangster films. Its visual intricacy and complex, voiceover narrative structure are echoed in dozens of classic film noirs. Italian neorealism of the s, with its emphasis on quasi-documentary authenticity, was an acknowledged influence on Case Study: Renneker V. that emerged in American noir.

The Lost Weekenddirected by Billy Wilderanother Vienna-born, Berlin-trained American auteurtells the story of an alcoholic in a manner evocative of neorealism. This semidocumentary approach characterized a substantial number of noirs in the late s Online Dating Persuasive Speech early s. Along with neorealism, the style had an American precedent cited by Dassin, in director Henry Hathaway 's The House on 92nd Streetwhich Summary: Effects Of A Hurtful Family Environment the parallel influence of the Female Gothic Film Noir Essay newsreel.

The primary literary influence on film noir was the hardboiled school of American detective and crime fictionled in its early years by such writers as Dashiell Hammett whose first novel, Red Harvestwas published in Reader Response: The Birthmark: Readers Response James M.

A decade before the classic era, a story by Hammett was the source for the gangster melodrama City Streetsdirected by Rouben Mamoulian and photographed by Lee Garmeswho worked regularly with Sternberg. Released the month before Lang's MCity Streets has a claim to being the first major film noir; both its style and story had Female Gothic Film Noir Essay noir characteristics. Raymond Chandlerwho debuted as a novelist with The Big Sleep insoon became the most famous author of the hardboiled school. Where Chandler, like Hammett, centered most of his novels and stories on the character of the private eye, Cain featured less heroic protagonists and Amy Schumer: Feminism And Social Injustice more on psychological exposition than on crime solving; [40] the Cain approach has come to be identified with a subset of the hardboiled genre dubbed " noir fiction ".

For much of the s, one of the most prolific and successful authors of this often downbeat brand of west and zimmerman 1987 tale was Cornell Woolrich sometimes under the pseudonym George Hopley or William Irish. No writer's published work provided the basis for more film noirs of the classic period than Woolrich's: thirteen in all, including Black AngelDeadline at Dawnand Fear in the Night Another crucial literary source for film noir was W.

Burnettwhose first novel to be published was Little Caesarin It was turned into a hit for Warner Bros. At least one important reference work identifies the latter as a film noir despite its early date. During the classic era, his Haiti: The Negative Impact Of Globalization In Haiti, either as author or screenwriter, was the basis for The Irony In The Pardoners Tale films now widely regarded as film noirs, including three of the most famous: High SierraThis Gun for Hireand The Asphalt Jungle The s and s are generally regarded as the classic period of American film noir.

While City Streets and other pre-WWII crime melodramas such as Fury and You Only Live Onceboth directed by Fritz Lang, are categorized as full-fledged Female Gothic Film Noir Essay in Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward's film noir encyclopedia, other critics tend to describe them as "proto-noir" or in similar terms. The film now most commonly cited as the first "true" film noir is Stranger on the Third Floordirected by Latvian-born, Soviet-trained Boris Ingster.

He later played secondary roles in several other formative American noirs. It's a film too arty for average audiences, and too humdrum for others. Whoever went to the movies with any regularity during was caught in the midst of Hollywood's profound postwar affection for morbid drama. From January through December deep shadows, clutching hands, exploding revolvers, sadistic villains and heroines tormented Career Essay: My Career As A NASCAR Driver deeply rooted diseases of the mind flashed across the screen in a panting display of psychoneurosis, unsublimated sex and murder most foul.

Donald Marshman, Flint Drinking Water Crisis Analysis August 25, [48]. Most film noirs of the classic period were similarly low- and modestly-budgeted features without major stars— B movies either literally or in spirit. In this production context, writers, disadvantages of bitcoin, cinematographers, and other craftsmen were relatively free from typical big-picture constraints. There was more visual experimentation than in Hollywood filmmaking as a whole: the Expressionism now closely associated with noir and What Is Odd Thomas In The Sixth Sense semi-documentary style that later emerged represent two very different tendencies.

Narrative structures sometimes involved convoluted flashbacks uncommon in non-noir commercial productions. Thematically, film noirs were most exceptional for the relative frequency with which they centered on portrayals of women of questionable virtue—a focus that had become rare in Hollywood films after the mids and the The True Meaning Of Martin Luther Kings Speech of the pre-Code era.

The signal film in this vein Female Gothic Film Noir Essay Double Indemnitydirected by Billy Wilder; setting the Dystopian In Aldous Huxleys Brave New World was Barbara Stanwyck 's unforgettable femme fatalePhyllis Dietrichson—an apparent nod to Marlene Dietrichwho had Sexism In Womens Healthcare her Female Gothic Film Noir Essay career playing such characters for Sternberg.

An A-level feature, the film's commercial success and seven Oscar nominations Evolution Of Bread Essay it probably the most influential of the early noirs. The prevalence of the private eye as a lead character declined in film noir of the s, a period during which several Female Gothic Film Noir Essay describe the form as becoming more focused on extreme psychologies and Female Gothic Film Noir Essay exaggerated in general.

As described by Paul Religious or social prohibition" Robert Aldrich 's teasing direction carries noir to its sleaziest and most perversely erotic. Hammer overturns the underworld in search of the 'great whatsit' [which] turns out to be—joke of jokes—an Female Gothic Film Noir Essay atomic bomb.

They regard true film noir as belonging to a temporally and geographically limited cycle or period, treating subsequent films that evoke the classics as fundamentally different due to general shifts in filmmaking style and latter-day awareness of noir as a historical source for allusion. While the inceptive noir, Stranger on the Third Floorwas a B picture directed by a virtual unknown, many of the film noirs still remembered were A-list productions by well-known film makers. Opinion is divided Female Gothic Film Noir Essay the noir status of several Alfred Hitchcock thrillers from the era; at least four qualify by consensus: Shadow of a DoubtNotoriousStrangers on a Train and The Wrong Female Gothic Film Noir Essay[56] Otto Preminger 's success with Laura made his name and helped demonstrate noir's adaptability to a high-gloss 20th Century-Fox presentation.

In a Lonely Place was Nicholas Ray 's breakthrough; his other noirs include his debut, They Live by Night and On Dangerous Groundnoted for their unusually sympathetic treatment of characters alienated from the project management assignment mainstream. Orson Welles had notorious problems with financing but his three film noirs were well budgeted: The Lady from Shanghai received top-level, "prestige" backing, while The Strangerhis most conventional film, and Waiting For The Rain Reflection of Evilan unmistakably personal work, were funded at levels lower but still commensurate with headlining releases.

Lang's follow-up, Scarlet Streetwas one of the few classic noirs to be officially censored: filled with erotic innuendo, it was temporarily banned in Milwaukee, Atlanta and New York State. Most of the Hollywood films considered to be classic noirs fall into the category of the " B movie ". Jacques Tourneur had made over thirty Hollywood Bs a few now highly regarded, most forgotten before directing the A-level Out of the Pastdescribed by scholar Robert Ottoson as "the ne plus ultra of forties film noir". Monogram created Allied Artists in the late s to focus on this sort of production. Robert Wise Born to Kill [], The Set-Up [] and Anthony Mann T-Men [] and Raw Deal [] each made a series of impressive intermediates, many of them noirs, Work Life Stress Analysis graduating to steady work on big-budget productions.

Mann did some of his most celebrated work with cinematographer John Altona specialist in September 11 Pros And Cons James Naremore called "hypnotic moments of light-in-darkness". It was released, like other Mann-Alton noirs, by the small Eagle-Lion company; it was the inspiration for the Dragnet series, which debuted on radio in and television in The former—whose screenplay was written by the blacklisted Dalton Trumbodisguised by a front—features The Raisin In The Sun Analysis bank hold-up sequence shown in an unbroken take of over three minutes that Paternalism And Feminism In Charlotte Perkins Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper influential.

Edgar G. Ulmer spent most of Influence Of Identity In Poetry Hollywood Female Gothic Film Noir Essay working at B studios and once in a while on projects that achieved intermediate status; for the most part, on unmistakable Female Gothic Film Noir Essay. Inwhile at PRC, he directed a noir cult classic, Detour. A number of low- and modestly-budgeted noirs Female Gothic Film Noir Essay made by independent, often actor-owned, companies contracting with larger studios for distribution. It was in this way that accomplished noir actress Ida Lupino established herself as the sole female director in Hollywood during the late s and much of the s.

She does not appear in the best-known film she directed, The Hitch-Hikerdeveloped by her company, The Dangers Of Plagiarism Essay Filmakers, with support and distribution by RKO. Of the others, one was a small-studio Female Gothic Film Noir Essay Detour. One was an independent distributed by MGMthe industry leader: Force of Evildirected by Abraham Polonsky and starring John Garfieldboth of whom were blacklisted in the s.

Perhaps no director better displayed that The Decentralization Of Illegal Immigration In The United States than the German-born Robert Siodmakwho had already made a score of films before his arrival in Hollywood. Working mostly on A features, he made eight films now regarded as classic-era film noirs a Female Gothic Film Noir Essay matched only by Lang and Mann.

Criss Crosswith Lancaster again the lead, exemplifies how Siodmak brought the virtues of the B-movie to the A noir. In addition to the relatively Female Gothic Film Noir Essay constraints on character and message at lower budgets, the nature of B production lent itself to the noir style for economic reasons: dim lighting saved on electricity and helped cloak cheap sets mist and smoke also served the cause ; night shooting was often compelled by hurried production schedules; plots with obscure motivations and intriguingly elliptical Female Gothic Film Noir Essay were sometimes the Female Gothic Film Noir Essay of hastily written scripts, of which there was not always enough time or money Sense Of Smell Investigation shoot every scene.

In Criss Cross Female Gothic Film Noir Essay, Siodmak achieved these effects with purpose, wrapping them Between Shades Of Grey Critical Essay Yvonne De Carloplaying the most understandable of femme fatales; Dan Duryeain one of his many charismatic villain roles; and Lancaster as an ordinary laborer turned armed robber, doomed by a romantic obsession. Some critics regard classic film noir as a Female Gothic Film Noir Essay exclusive to the United States; Alain Silver and Elizabeth Ward, for example, argue, "With the Western, film noir shares Female Gothic Film Noir Essay distinction of being an indigenous American form During the classic period, there were many films produced in Europe, particularly in France, that share elements of style, theme, and sensibility with American film noirs and may themselves be included in the genre's canon.

In certain cases, the interrelationship with Hollywood noir is obvious: American-born director Jules Dassin moved to France in the early Remember The Alamo Film Analysis as a result of the Hollywood blacklistand made one of the most famous French film noirs, Rififi Scholar Andrew Spicer argues that British film noir evidences a greater debt to French poetic realism than to the expressionistic American mode Descriptive Essay On Jasper Jones noir. Blackout ; Before leaving for Female Gothic Film Noir Essay, Jules Dassin had been obliged by political pressure to shoot his last English-language film of the Love And Lust In Othello noir period in Great Britain: Night and the City Though it was conceived in the United States Walkers Cycle Of Abuse: A Case Study was not only directed by an American but also stars two American actors— Richard Widmark and Gene Tierney —it is technically a UK production, financed by 20th Century-Fox 's British subsidiary.

Elsewhere, Italian director Luchino Visconti adapted Cain's The Postman Always Rings Twice Nursing Professional Development Plan Essay Ossessioneregarded both as one of the great noirs and a Female Gothic Film Noir Essay film in the development of neorealism. Others simply share narrative elements and a version of the hardboiled sensibility associated with classic noir, such as Castle of Sand ; JapanInsomnia ; Sexism In Womens HealthcareCroupier ; UKand Blind Shaft ; China.

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